1. High explosive
1. His Eminence.
2. Her, or His, Excellency.
1. The symbol for the element helium
1. Used to refer to the man or boy previously mentioned or implied.
2. Used to refer to a male animal.
3. Usage Problem Used to refer to a person whose gender is unspecified or unknown:
“He who desires but acts not, breeds pestilence”(William Blake)
4. A male person or animal:
Is the cat a he?
5. Middle English
6. from Old English h? * see ko-
源自 古英语 h? *参见 ko-
7. Traditionally, English speakers have used the pronouns he, him, and his generically in contexts in which the grammatical form of the antecedent requires a singular pronoun, as in Every member of Congress is answerable to his constituents;
传统上，说英语的人一般把代词he，him 和 his 用在先行词的语法形式要求跟一个单数代词的语境中， 如国会中每一位成员都应对 其 选民负责；
A novelist should write about what he knows best;
No one seems to take any pride in his work anymore, and so on.
没有人再会对自己 的工作感到骄傲 等等。
8. Beginning early in the 20th century, however, the traditional usage has come under increasing criticism for reflecting and perpetuating gender discrimination. · Defenders of the traditional usage have argued that the masculine pronouns he, his, and him can be used generically to refer to men and women. This analysis of the generic use of he is linguistically doubtful. If he were truly a gender-neutral form, we would expect that it could be used to refer to the members of any group containing both men and women. But in fact the English masculine form is an odd choice when it refers to a female member of such a group. There is something plainly disconcerting about sentences such as
可是从20世纪早期起，传统用法不断受到指责，因为它反映并长久维持性别歧视。传统用法辩护者认为阳性代词he，his 和 him 可以用来指代男人和女人的总称。 有关he 的属性用法的分析， 从语言学角度上来说，是有疑问的。如果he 果真是一个中性形式， 我们猜想它可以用来指代任何包含有男人和女人的群体中的成员。但事实上，在英语中用阳性形式来指代上述一群体中的女性成员构成一种很奇特的选择。如下面这个句子中明显存在使人困窘之处：
Each of the stars of It Happened One Night [i.e., Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert] won an Academy Award for his performance.
“一夜风流”中的每一位明星，即克拉克·盖博和克劳狄特·柯尔贝尔， 因各自的表演获奥斯卡金像奖 。
9. In this case, the use of his forces the reader to envision a single male who stands as the representative member of the group, a picture that is at odds with the image that comes to mind when we picture the stars of It Happened One Night. Thus he is not really a gender-neutral pronoun; rather, it refers to a male who is to be taken as the representative member of the group referred to by its antecedent. The traditional usage, then, is not simply a grammatical convention; it also suggests a particular pattern of thought. · Many writers sidestep the problem by avoiding the relevant constructions. In place of Every student handed in his assignment, they write All the students handed in their assignments; in place of A taxpayer must appear for his hearing in person, they write Taxpayers must appear for their hearings in person, and so on. Even when using the relevant constructions, however, many writers never use masculine pronouns as generics. In a series of sample sentences such as A patient who doesn't accurately report ? sexual history to the doctor runs the risk of misdiagnosis, an average of 46 percent of the Usage Panel chose a coordinate form (her/his, his or her, and so on), 3 percent chose the plural pronoun (although the actual frequency of the plural in writing is far higher than this number would suggest), 2 percent chose the feminine pronoun, another 2 percent chose an indefinite or a definite article, and 7 percent gave no response or felt that no pronoun was needed to complete the sentence. · As a substitute for coordinate forms such as his/her or her and his, third person plural forms, such as their, have a good deal to recommend them: they are admirably brief and entirely colloquial and may be the only sensible choice in informal style; for example, in the radio commercial that says “Make someone happy—give them a goosedown Christmas,” where him would be misleading and her or him would be fussy. At least one major British publisher has recently adopted this usage for its learners' dictionaries, where one may read such sentences as If someone says they are “winging it,” they mean that they are improvising their way. But in formal style, this option is perhaps less risky for a publisher of reference books than for an individual writer, who may be misconstrued as being careless or ignorant rather than attuned to the various grammatical and political nuances of the use of the masculine pronoun as generic pronoun. What is more, this solution ignores a persistent intuition that expressions such as everyone and each student should in fact be treated as grammatically singular. Writers who are concerned about avoiding both grammatical and social problems are best advised to use coordinate forms such as his or her. · Some writers see no need to use a personal pronoun implying gender unless absolutely necessary; in the sample sentence A child who develops this sort of rash on ? hands should probably be kept at home for a couple of days, 6 percent of the Usage Panel completed the sentence with the. In addition, some writers have proposed other solutions to the use of he as a generic pronoun, such as the introduction of wholly new gender-neutral pronouns like s/he or hiser, or the switching between feminine and masculine forms in alternating sentences, paragraphs, or chapters. · In contrast to these innovations, many writers use the masculine pronoun as generic in all cases. For the same series of sample sentences, the average percentage of Usage Panel members who consistently completed the sentences with his was 37. This course is grammatically unexceptionable, but the writer who follows it must be prepared to incur the displeasure of readers who regard this pattern as a mark of insensitivity or gender discrimination. When a majority of writers are taking care to avoid the masculine as generic, the writer who uses it in this way may invite the inference that there is some pointed reason for referring to the representative instance as male. The entire question is unlikely to be resolved in the near future.See Usage Note at any, anyone, each, every, neither, one
在这个例子中，his 的运用，迫使读者想象出一位单身男子站在那里作为这个群体的成员代表， 这一画面与我们看到一夜风流 一片中的明星时在脑中产生的形象是相抵触的。 所以he 不是一个真正的中性代词， 不如说，它指代的是一个被作为先行词提及到的那个群体中的成员的男性代表。于是，传统用法不仅仅只是语法惯例，它还暗示一种特别的思维方式。许多作家避免出现这种相关结构以回避问题。他们不写Every student handed in his assignment, 而写All the students handed in their assignments， 不写A taxpayer must appear for his hearing in person， 而写Taxpayers must appear for their hearings in person , 诸如此类。 即使用到这种相关结构，许多作家也从不把阳性代词用作通称词。在如A patient who doesn't accurately report______barule/sexual history to the doctor runs the risk for runs of misdiagnosis, 这样一组样句中， 被测试者平均百分之四十六的人选择一种并列形式（her/his ,his or her , 等等）， 百分之三的人选择复数代词（尽管在写作中，使用复数的实际频率远远高于这个数字所暗示的），百分之二的人选择阴性代词，另有百分之二选择了一个不定冠词或定冠词，还有百分之七的人没有作出回答或感到不需要代词来完成这样的句子。作为his/her 或者 her and his 这种并列形式的替代词， 第三人称的复数形式，例如their 具有许多可取之处： 它们极其简洁，而且完全口语化；在不正式的文体中或许是唯一明智和选择，例如在一台收音机播出的广告中说“Make someone happy--give them a goosedown Christmas，” 用him 会产生异义， 而her or him 又显得累赘。 至少英国一家主要出版商最近已将这种用法编入了学习字典，读者可以读到如If someone says they are "winging it," they mean that they are improvising their way 。 在正式文体中，这种选择对于参考书籍的出版商来说，危险性要小一些，而对个体作家来说，危险性要大，他可能会被误认为粗心大意或无知而不是为了协调，因把阳性代词用作一般代词而造成的在语法和政治方面的多种细微差别。另外，这种解决方法还忽略了一种固执的直觉认识，那就是认为everyone 和 each student 从语法上来说，实际上应是单数形式。 关心如何同时避免这种语法和社会问题的作家被告知，使用如his or her 这样的并列形式。 一些作家认为除非完全必要时，否则不需使用一个暗示性的人称代词。对于 A child who develops this sort of rash on_____barule/hands should probably be kept at home for a couple of days 这样的句子， 百分之六的用法专题使用小组成员赞同the 用作一般代词提出。 其他对he 的使用解决办法， 如引入全新的中性代词，象s/he 或者 hiser 或者轮流在句子、段落或章节中使用阴性和阳性代词。 与这些建议形成对比的是，许多作家在所有的情况下都把阳性代词作一般代词。对于同样的一组句子，用法专题使用小组中平均有百分之三十七的成员坚持用his 来完成句子。 这种对策在语法方面是无懈可击的，但遵循这一方法的作家必须有这样的准备：它会引起读者的不满，认为这种形式是感觉迟钝或性别歧视的。当大部分作家注意避免将阳性代词用作一般代词时，仍使用这种方式的作家也许会招来这种推测，用男性来指代这种代表的场合其中必有尖锐的原因，整个问题看来在近期难以得到解决参见 any， anyone， each， every， neither， one
11. Hebrew h?