1. The striking of one body against another; collision.
2. The force or impetus transmitted by a collision.
3. The effect or impression of one thing on another:
still gauging the impact of automation on the lives of factory workers.
4. The power of making a strong, immediate impression:
a speech that lacked impact.
5. To pack firmly together.
6. To strike forcefully:
meteorites impacting the lunar surface.
7. Usage Problem To have an effect or impact on.
v.intr.Usage Problem （不及物动词）【用法疑难】
8. To have an effect or impact.
10. The central meaning shared by these nouns is “a strong effect exerted by one person or thing on another”:
the far-reaching impact of an oil embargo;
11. Each generation of critics seems to select one particular usage to stand as the emblem of what they view as linguistic crassness. Thirty years ago it was the use of contact as a verb, but opposition to that form has more or less disappeared, and attention now focuses on the verbal use of impact meaning “have an effect, affect.” Eighty-four percent of the Usage Panel disapproves of the construction to impact on, as in the phrase social pathologies, common to the inner city, that impact heavily on such a community; and fully 95 percent disapproves of the use of impact as a transitive verb in the sentence Companies have used disposable techniques that have a potential for impacting our health. But even these figures do not reflect the degree of distaste with which critics view the usage: in their comments some Panelists labeled the usage as “bureaucratic,” “pretentious,” “vile,” and “a vulgarism.” · It may be that the particular pretentiousness associated with the verbal use of impact is caused by its derivation from an already questionable metaphoric use of the noun impact, as in phrases such as the political impact of the decision or the impact of the program on the community, in which no more is usually meant than might have been expressed by effects or consequences. But though impact may have begun life a generation ago as an inflated substitute for “affect significantly,” it has by now become so common in corporate and institutional contexts that younger speakers appear to regard it as wholly standard and straightforward usage. Within a few years, accordingly, the usage is likely to be no more objectionable than contact is now, since it will no longer betray any particular pretentiousness on the part of those who use it.See Usage Note at contact
每一代的批评家好象都挑了一个特别的用法作为他们认为的语言上的愚蠢行为的象征。三十年以前是contact 作为动词的用法， 但是对这种形式的反对或多或少已经消失了，注意力现在集中到了impact 意思为“有不好的影响、影响”的动词用法上。 用法专题小组成员中百分之八十四不同意to impact on 的结构， 如在短语对内城区来说很普通的社会病理学，对这样一个社区产生了很大影响的 当中； 百分之九十五的成员完全不同意impact 在句子 公司已经使用了可能会对我们的健康产生不良影响的易处理技术 中当作及物动词来使用。 但是即使是这些数字也没有反映出批评家们对这种用法厌恶的程度：在他们的评论当中有些成员把这种用法说成是“官僚主义的”、“装腔作势的”，“可耻的”，还说这是“粗鄙的语言。”也许和impact 的动词用法有关联的虚饰成份是由于它是从名词 impact 的一个早有争议的比喻用法衍变而来造成的。 如在短语这个决定在政治上的影响 或者 这个计划对公众的影响 中它的意思并没有比用 effects 或者 consequences 表达出来的意思要多。 尽管impact 作为“明显地影响”的夸大了的替代可能在一代人之前开始产生， 但是现在的年轻一代使用者看上去把它当成了完全标准的、直接的用法，这在共同的和惯例的文章中已经很普遍了。相应地在几年内，这种用法很有可能不比今天的contact 更引起反对， 因为对于那些使用它的人来说这不会再显得有点矫揉造作了参见 contact
12. The often criticized use of impact, as in the passage “social pathologies, common to the inner city, that impact heavily on such a community,” illustrates how one part of speech can have an impact on another part of speech spelled the same way. The usage also reflects the role played by science in the formation of new senses of words. The noun impact comes from the past participle imp3ctus of the Latin verb impingere, which means “to bring into violent contact,” “to drive persons or other creatures onto or against,” and “to fix, fasten onto.” Our noun, first recorded in 1781, derived its sense from the “contact” sense of impingere. First recorded in a scientific context having to do with the collision of bodies, it was much used in scientific contexts and later, in the 19th century, took on a figurative sense, “the effect of one thing upon another.” The verb impact, on the other hand, also coming from Latin imp3ctus, is found much earlier than the noun, that is, it is first recorded in 1601, deriving its sense from the “driving” and “fixing” senses of impingere and meaning “to press closely into something, pack in.” This old sense is still with us, but the later noun had an influence on the verb, giving us senses such as “to strike forcefully” and “to have an effect.”
经常遭受批评的impact 的象在短语“对内城区来说很普通的社会病理学，对这样一个社区产生了很大影响的”的用法显示了在拼法相同的情况下一个词性对另一个词性能产生怎么样的影响。 用法也反映了在单词新的意思的形成过程中科学所扮演的角色。名词impact 来自拉丁语动词 impingere 的过去分词 impactus ， 意思为“带入激烈的接触当中”“驱赶人或其他生物抵住”和“固定，拴紧。”我们的名词用法，最早在1781年被记录下来，它的意思从“接触”的impingere 的意思衍变而来。 首次出现在一篇同物体碰撞有关的科技性文章当中后，在科技性文章中它经常被用到，后来在19世纪有了一个比喻的意义“一个事物对另一个事物的影响”。在另一方面，动词impact 也来自拉丁语 impactus ， 比名词出现得要早得多，最早在1601年被记录下来，它的意思从impingere 的“驱赶”和“固定”的意思衍化而来， 意思是“很紧密地嵌入某物，挤进”。我们仍然在用这个古老的意思，但是后来的名词对动词产生了影响，我们又有了诸如“猛烈地打击”和“有不良的影响”等新的意思