DJ音标发音： [ðæt, ðət]
KK音标发音： [ðæt, ðət]
1. Used to refer to the one designated, implied, mentioned, or understood:
What kind of soup is that?
2. Used to refer to the one, thing, or type specified as follows:
The relics found were those of an earlier time.
3. Used to refer to the event, action, or time just mentioned:
After that, he became a recluse.
4. Used to indicate the farther or less immediate one:
That is for sale; this is not.
5. Used to emphasize the idea of a previously expressed word or phrase:
He was fed up, and that to a great degree.
6. The one, kind, or thing; something:
She followed the calling of that she loved.
7. those Used to indicate an unspecified number of people:
those who refused to join.
8. Used as a relative pronoun to introduce a clause, especially a restrictive clause:
the car that has the flat tire.
9. In, on, by, or with which:
附加说明之物：相当于In，on，by or with which ：
each summer that the concerts are performed.
10. According to what; insofar as:
He never knew her, that I know of.
11. Being the one singled out, implied, or understood:
that place; those mountains.
12. Being the one further removed or less obvious:
That route is shorter than this one.
13. To such an extent or degree:
Is your problem that complicated?
14. To a high degree; very:
didn't take what he said that seriously.
15. Used to introduce a noun clause that is usually the subject or object of a verb or a predicate nominative:
“That contemporary American English is exuberantly vigorous is undeniable”(William Arrowsmith)
16. Used to introduce a subordinate clause stating a result, wish, purpose, reason, or cause:
She hoped that he would arrive on time. He was saddened that she felt so little for him.
17. Used to introduce an anticipated subordinate clause following the expletive it occurring as subject of the verb:
It is true that dental work is expensive.
18. Used to introduce a subordinate clause modifying an adverb or adverbial expression:
will go anywhere that they are welcome.
19. Used to introduce a subordinate clause that is joined to an adjective or noun as a complement:
was sure that she was right; the belief that rates will rise soon.
20. Used to introduce an elliptical exclamation of desire:
Oh, that I were rich!
21. In addition; besides:
lived in one room, and a small room at that.
22. Regardless of what has been said or implied:
a long shot, but she just might win at that.
23. To explain more clearly; in other words:
on the first floor, that is, the floor at street level.
24. Middle English
25. from Old English th?t * see to-
源自 古英语 th?t *参见 to-
26. The standard rule is that that should be used only to introduce a restrictive (or “defining”) relative clause, which serves to identify the entity being talked about; in this use it should never be preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The house that Jack built has been torn down, where the clause that Jack built tells which house was torn down, or I am looking for a book that is easy to read, where that is easy to read tells what kind of book is desired. Only which is to be used with nonrestrictive (or “nondefining”) clauses, which give additional information about an entity that has already been identified in the context; in this use, which is always preceded by a comma. Thus, we say The students in Chemistry 10 have been complaining about the textbook, which (not that ) is hard to follow. The clause which is hard to follow does not indicate which text is being complained about; even if it were omitted, we would know that the phrase the textbook refers to the text in Chemistry 10. The use of that in nonrestrictive clauses like this, though once common in writing and still frequent in speech, is best avoided in formal style. · Some grammarians have argued that symmetry requires that which should be used only in nonrestrictive clauses, as that is to be used only in restrictive clauses. Thus, they suggest that we should avoid sentences such as I need a book which will tell me all about city gardening, where the clause which will tell me all about city gardening indicates which sort of book is needed. Such use of which is useful where two or more relative clauses are joined by and or or, as in It is a philosophy in which the common man may find solace and which many have found reason to praise. Which is also preferred to introduce a restrictive relative clause when the preceding phrase itself contains a that, as in I can only give you that which I don't need (not that that I don't need ) or We want to assign only that book which will be most helpful (preferred to that book that will be most helpful ). · That may be omitted in a relative clause when the subject of the clause is different from the referent of the phrase preceding the clause. Thus, we may say either the book that I was reading or the book I was reading, where the subject of the clause (I ) is not the referent of the phrase the book. Omission of that in these cases has sometimes been described as incorrect, but the practice is extremely common and has ample precedent in reputable writing. · There have also been occasional objections to the omission of that in its use to introduce a subordinate clause, as in I think we should try again. But this usage is entirely idiomatic and is in fact favored with some of the verb phrases that can introduce such clauses: thus, one would more normally write
标准规则中，that 应只被用于引导限定性（或“确定的”）关系从句， 这些从句用于明确正被谈论的实体；在这种情况下，前面决不能有逗号。因此，我们说杰克建的房子已经拆毁了 ， 在这里，从句杰克所建的 指明哪幢房子被拆毁了， 或者我正在找一本易读的书 ， 在这里，易读的 指明哪类书是需要的。 只有which 用于非限定性（或“不确定的”）从句中， 为已经在上下文中定义的实体提供附加信息；在此用法中，which 之前总有逗号。 因此，我们说化学10班的学生一直在抱怨这课本，实在 （不是 that ) 是太难懂了 。 从句which is hard to follow 并不指明哪一课本被抱怨； 即使它被省略，我们也知道the textbook 指化学10班的课本。 That 象这样用于非限定性从句中， 虽然在写作中曾很普遍而且在口语中依然频繁出现，但在正式文体中最好避免使用。一些语法学家认为对称性要求 which 应只用于非限定性从句中， 就象that 只用于限定性从句中。 因此，他们建议我们应该避免诸如我需要一本关于城市园艺的书 这样的句子， 这里从句which will tell me all about city gardening 指明需要何种书。 当两个或多个关系从句被and 或 or 连接时， which 的这种用法很有用， 如是哲学使普通人找到慰藉并使许多人有理由去称颂。 Which 也用作引导限定性关系从句，在当前置短语中含有that 时， 如我只能给你我不需要的东西 （不是 that that I don't need )或 我们只想分发那本最用的书 （好于that book that will be most helpful )。 当从句主语与从句前短语所指不一致时， that 在关系从句中可以省略。 因此，我们可以说the book that I was reading 或者 the book I was reading 。 在这里，从句主语(I )和短语 the book 的主语不同。 在这些情况下，that 的省略有时被认为是错误的， 但是这在实际中极普遍而且在规范写作中有充分的先例。对于that 用于引导从句时被省略偶然持有异议， 如在我认为我们应该再试一次 中。 但这种用法完全符合语法而且实际上有一些引导这样从句的短语支持；因此，可以正常应用
I take it she has passed the test
27. than I take it that she has passed the test. Thatshould not be omitted, however, when the subordinate clause begins with an adverbial phrase or any element other than the subject:
好于I take it that she has passed the test。 然而，当从句以副词短语开头或其它不是主语的成份开头时，that不能省略：
She said that under no circumstances would she allow us to skip the meeting.
The book argues that eventually the housing supply will increase.
28. This last sentence would be ambiguous if that were omitted, since the adverb eventually could then be construed as modifying either argues or will increase. See Usage Note at doubt, this, whatever, which, who
最后一句话中如果that 被省略，句子将变得模棱而可， 因为副词eventually 可以被解释为修饰 argues or will increase 参见 doubt， this， whatever， which， who